Titanium
Ti
atomic number
22
melting point
1668°C

1. Mix a small amount of powdered mineral with sodium metaphosphate flux, then expose the mixture to the blowpipe flame; in the oxidizing portion of the flame, the fused bead will take on a yellow color which fades as it cools; in the reducing portion of the flame, the fused bead again takes on a yellow color when hot, but in this case turns a beautiful violet color when cool.

2. Mix a small amount of powdered mineral with some borax flux (sodium carbonate flux can also be used), then apply the blowpipe flame until the mixture forms a red-hot bead, next place the cooled bead in a solution of hydrochloric acid, add a small strip of metallic tin, and then boil the mixture until the bead dissolves; the solution will turn a beautiful violet color; (samples containing only trace amounts of titanium will not register a color change in this test).

3. Mix a small amount of powdered mineral with some sodium carbonate flux, then apply the blowpipe flame until the mixture forms a red-hot bead, now place the fused bead in a small beaker containing an equal amount of concentrated sulfuric acid and distilled water, then boil the mixture until the bead dissolves and the solution clears, now dilute the solution further with distilled water and then add several drops of H2O2; titanium-bearing compounds produce a light yellow to deep amber color when treated in this fashion; (the range of colors produced in this test is a function of the titanium content in the sample; the deeper the color, the more titanium present).