Manganese
Mn
atomic number
25
melting point
1246°C

1. Mix a tiny amount of powdered mineral sample with borax flux, then apply the blowpipe flame to the mixture; in the oxidizing portion of the flame, the fused bead will be quite opaque and unremarkable while hot, but as it cools it will turn a beautiful violet-red color; in the reducing portion of the flame, the fused bead fades to colorless and remains so even after it’s cooled.

2. Mix a tiny amount of powdered mineral sample with sodium carbonate flux, then apply the blowpipe flame to the mixture; in the oxidizing portion of the flame, the fused bead will be green while hot and bluish-green when cool; in the reducing portion of the flame, the fused bead turns white.

3. Dissolve a small amount of powdered mineral sample in a test tube containing dilute HCl, dip the looped end of a platinum wire in the acid solution and then immerse the moistened loop in a hot flame using a lamp, candle, or Bunsen gas burner; manganese will impart a yellowish-green color to the flame.

4. Add a small amount of powdered mineral sample to a test tube (or small beaker) containing hydrochloric acid; some manganese oxides will effervesce as they dissolve in the acid, giving off pungent fumes of Cl2 gas.